逃离塔利班后,阿富汗难民面临未知的命运

e98083e7a6bbe5a194e588a9e78fade5908eefbc8ce998bfe5af8ce6b197e99abee6b091e99da2e4b8b4e69caae79fa5e79a84e591bde8bf90 • 逃离塔利班后,阿富汗难民面临未知的命运

逃离塔利班后,阿富汗难民面临未知的命运

‘What Will Happen to Me?’ An Uncertain Future Awaits Afghans Who Fled

在這張由美國中央司令部發布的照片中,美國士兵在卡達的一個空軍基地準備讓疏散人員上飛機。軍方禁止在該基地進行獨立的新聞攝影。
在這張由美國中央司令部發布的照片中,美國士兵在卡達的一個空軍基地準備讓疏散人員上飛機。軍方禁止在該基地進行獨立的新聞攝影。 U.S. CENTRAL COMMAND
AL UDEID AIR BASE, Qatar — Walking down the tarmac of the American military air base around 2 a.m. recently, the Afghan woman lunged for a handgun strapped to an American airman’s leg. As service members rushed to restrain her, she shrieked and thrashed — determined to kill herself. Then, she crumpled into a ball and sobbed.
卡達烏代德空軍基地——不久前一天的凌晨2點左右,在這個美國空軍基地的停機坪上,一名阿富汗婦女沖向一名美國空軍士兵,試圖搶奪他腿上綁著的手槍。當眾人趕來制服她時,她發出尖叫,使勁掙扎,一心尋死。接下來,她蜷縮成一團,泣不成聲。
Her family had been killed during the Taliban’s rapid takeover in Afghanistan and she had barely managed to get on an evacuation flight out of Kabul. Now, she was hundreds of miles from her homeland — all alone.
她的家人在塔利班迅速接管阿富汗的過程中遇害,她勉強登上了撤離喀布爾的航班。現在,她孤身一人,在遠離家鄉數百英里的地方。
“Please, please, please,” she gasped, the orange and yellow lights from buses crowded with evacuees flashing across her tear-soaked face.
「求求你們了,求求你們了,」她喘著氣說道。擠滿疏散人員的大巴車發出的橙色和黃色燈光,從她流滿淚水的臉上閃過。
Since the Taliban seized power in Afghanistan, the exodus of Afghans has swelled like a flash flood, inundating American military bases in places like Qatar, where tens of thousands of evacuees have over the past two weeks arrived to be screened by the U.S. authorities.
自塔利班奪取阿富汗政權以來,阿富汗人的撤離就像山洪暴發一樣淹沒了美國在卡達等地的軍事基地。過去兩週,數以萬計的撤離者抵達卡達,接受美國當局的篩查。
But as international evacuations wind down, attention has turned to the fates of those who were part of the sudden and unanticipated mass exodus. In just two weeks, more than 5,000 American troops in Kabul helped evacuate more than 114,000 people in a chaotic and often violent effort reflective of the stunning pace at which the Taliban took over.
但隨著國際撤離行動的結束,人們的注意力已經轉向那些在突然和意外的大規模撤離裹挾下的個體命運。在短短兩週的時間裡,喀布爾的5000多名美軍幫助疏散了11.4萬多人,這個充滿混亂且時常有暴力發生的行動,反映出塔利班接管阿富汗的驚人速度。
After the insurgents entered the Afghan capital, Kabul, desperate scrums of people descended on the city’s international airport, where they clambered onto evacuation flights. On landing in Qatar, which has played a key role in evacuation efforts, some Afghans fell to their knees in tears after disembarking, thinking they had arrived in the United States.
叛軍進入阿富汗首都喀布爾後,絕望的民眾湧向這座城市的國際機場,爬上疏散航班。降落在卡達後(這個國家在撤離行動中發揮了關鍵作用),一些阿富汗人哭著跪倒在地,以為自己已經抵達了美國。
But that hope was extinguished after they were shuttled to a refugee processing center run by the American military in a large aircraft hangar — their first glimpse into the long, grueling journey toward eventually being resettled in the United States.
但是,在他們被送到美軍設在一個大型機庫中的難民處理中心後,這希望破滅了。這是他們第一次瞥見最終在美國重獲安置的漫長而艱苦的旅程是什麼樣子。
The surge of evacuees has already promised to create numerous legal, bureaucratic and logistical problems. Many Afghans who clambered onto flights may not be eligible for resettlement in the United States. Those who are risk overwhelming resettlement organizations in the United States that are tasked with providing for the immediate needs of newly arrived refugees — like housing, medical care and food — and that typically handle only a steady trickle of newcomers.
撤離人數激增必定導致大量的法律、官僚和後勤問題。許多爬上飛機的阿富汗人可能沒有資格安置在美國。這些人可能會使美國負責重新安置的機構不堪重負。這些組織的任務是為新抵達的難民提供住房、醫療和食物等緊急需求,通常它們只有能力處理一小部分新難民。
And at the processing centers, the relief of escaping Afghanistan under Taliban rule has collided with the hardships of leaving a homeland and starting life anew. Amid the exodus, people’s collective sense of mourning for what Afghanistan once was has given way to fear for what their lives will become outside of it.
在處理中心,逃離塔利班統治下的阿富汗帶來的解脫,與離開家園、開始新生活的艱辛發生碰撞。在逃離過程中,人們對曾經那個阿富汗的集體哀悼,已經讓位於對流離生活的擔憂。
這是一張由一名被撤離的阿富汗人拍攝的照片,該人出於擔心被報復而要求匿名。照片上,烏代德空軍基地人員正在為到達的阿富汗人卸下供給。
這是一張由一名被撤離的阿富汗人拍攝的照片,該人出於擔心被報復而要求匿名。照片上,烏代德空軍基地人員正在為到達的阿富汗人卸下供給。
“Thinking about my family, their situation, I am not mentally well,” said Zahra, 28, who left last week on an evacuation flight to Doha, the capital of Qatar. “And then in America, we don’t know what will happen there: Will we find a job, will we settle in a good place, will we make better lives for ourselves?” Like others interviewed for this article, she asked that only her first name be used to avoid reprisals.
「考慮到我的家人和他們的處境,我精神狀態不是很好,」28歲的扎赫拉(Zahra)說道,她上週搭乘疏散航班來到卡達首都杜哈。「然後在美國,我們不知道那裡會發生什麼:我們能找到工作嗎?我們會在一個好地方安頓下來嗎?我們能讓自己過上更好的生活嗎?」和其他接受本文採訪的人一樣,她要求只透露自己的名字以避免遭到報復。
Since she arrived in Doha, Zahra has been replaying the warning a Taliban guard gave her: Once she left, she would never be allowed back.
自抵達杜哈以來,扎赫拉的腦海裡一直在重複塔利班衛兵給她的警告:一旦她離開,將永遠不會被允許回來。
In Afghanistan she had readied herself to flee for nearly a week as she watched provincial capitals collapse in rapid succession. Then, two days after the insurgents poured into Kabul, she rushed to the airport with her mother, her siblings and their families.
在阿富汗,她已經做好逃離的準備,在將近一週的時間裡,她眼睜睜地看著各省會城市迅速相繼崩潰。然後,在叛軍湧入喀布爾兩天後,她和她的母親、兄弟姐妹和他們的家人趕到機場。
After they pleaded with Taliban guards at the gate for more than an hour, the insurgents moved aside to allow Zahra’s family through. But as the crowd behind her surged forward, she heard the Taliban firing weapons into the air and felt her mother’s hand slip out of her own. When she turned around, she saw Taliban guards beating back the group behind her, with her mother and the rest of her family swallowed into that crowd.
在向門口的塔利班衛兵懇求了一個多小時後,他們讓扎赫拉的家人通過了。但當她身後的人群湧上來時,她聽到塔利班向空中鳴槍,並感覺到她母親的手從她自己手上鬆開了。當她轉身時,她看到塔利班衛兵在她身後毆打這群人,她的母親和其他家人都淹沒在了人群中。
Only Zahra, her brother-in-law and his children made it past the gate. Last week, they joined thousands of other Afghans who have poured into the processing center at Al Udeid Air Base.
只有扎赫拉、她的姐夫和他的孩子們通過了大門。上週,他們與其他數千名阿富汗人一起湧入烏代德空軍基地(Al Udeid Air Base)的處理中心。
Inside the aircraft hangar, bone-tired children sprawled across a patchwork of green Army cots, some stained from babies in need of diapers. With only part of the hangar air-conditioned, the air often felt thick from the 115-degree heat outside. Plastic bottles and human waste littered bathroom stalls. In giant tents with fluorescent lights overhead, mattresses covered the floor and hundreds of people tried to settle in. Outside the tents, a makeshift playground had been set up for the children.
在機庫內,筋疲力盡的孩子們躺在拼湊而成的綠色行軍床上,其中一些被沒有尿不濕穿的嬰兒弄髒了。由於只有部分機庫裝有空調,室外46攝氏度的高溫常常使空氣變得稠密。洗手間裡散落著塑料瓶和人類排泄物。在頭頂裝有熒光燈的巨型帳篷裡,地板上鋪滿了床墊,成百上千人試圖在這裡安頓下來。帳篷外,人們為孩子們搭建了一個臨時遊樂場。
Overstretched American military personnel have worked around the clock to provide medical care, food and water to the unexpected flood of arrivals while immigration officers vet them. But the initial influx of Afghans outpaced the ability to screen them, raising concerns that a humanitarian disaster was unfolding in the processing centers.
不堪重負的美國軍人夜以繼日地工作,為意外湧入的人們提供醫療服務、食物和水,與此同時,移民官員在對他們進行審查。但最初湧入的阿富汗人太多,無法對他們進行一一篩查,這讓人擔心處理中心會發生人道災難。
John F. Kirby, the chief Pentagon spokesman, said Tuesday, “We’ll be the first to admit that there were conditions at Al Udeid that could have been better,” adding that poor circumstances were “facilitated by the sheer numbers, and the speed with which those numbers got there.”
五角大廈首席發言人約翰·F·柯比(John F. Kirby)週二表示,「我們將率先承認,烏代德的條件本可以更好,」他還說,糟糕的情況「是由人數太多,以及這些人到達的速度太快造成的」。
To ease the strain on the transit hub in Doha, the U.S. military began sending evacuees to American bases in Germany, Italy, Spain and Bahrain, Mr. Kirby said. In Doha, over 100 additional toilets, plus cleaning and catering services, have been added to improve conditions.
柯比說,為了緩解杜哈中轉中心的壓力,美國軍方開始將疏散人員送往德國、義大利、西班牙和巴林的美國基地。為改善條件,杜哈增加了100多個廁所,以及清潔和餐飲服務。
After spending hours — or in some cases, days — at Al Udeid, many Afghan evacuees have been transferred to Camp As Sayliyah, a former Army base in a suburb outside Doha, which includes shipping containers transformed into transitional housing. The camp was intended for the monthslong process of screening Afghans who worked with the U.S. government and had applied for special immigration visas — a group that, a few months ago, was not expected to number more than a few thousand.
在烏代德待了幾個小時、有時甚至是幾天之後,許多阿富汗撤離者被轉移到埃斯薩利亞營地(Camp As Sayliyah),這是杜哈郊外的一個前陸軍基地,其中有被改造成過渡性住房的集裝箱。這個營地是為了對那些同美國政府合作並申請特殊移民簽證的阿富汗人進行為期數月的篩選。幾個月前,人們預計這一群體的人數不會超過幾千人。
在烏代德處理中心的一個臨時遊樂區裡的孩子們,在接收從阿富汗撤離的人員的初期,這裡已經人滿為患。
在烏代德處理中心的一個臨時遊樂區裡的孩子們,在接收從阿富汗撤離的人員的初期,這裡已經人滿為患。
Instead, in the first few frenzied days under the Taliban, when rumors swirled of American planes transporting Afghans directly to the United States, thousands of people without passports, visas or identification cards flooded Kabul’s airport and were placed on Doha-bound planes.
相反,在塔利班統治下的最初幾天,當傳言說美國飛機可以將阿富汗人直接運到美國時,數以千計沒有護照、簽證或身份證的人湧入喀布爾機場,登上飛往杜哈的飛機。
“It was a panic environment; the Taliban had entered the airport, that’s why we came here,” said Gul, a police officer at Kabul’s airport who was among those flown to Doha.
「那是一個恐慌的環境;塔利班已經進入機場,這就是我們來這裡的原因,」古爾(Gul)說,他是喀布爾機場的一名警察,也是飛往杜哈的人員之一。
The day after Kabul fell, he said, he arrived at his usual position at the airport, which felt like a ghost town: Security forces and airline crews had all abandoned their posts. By midday, chaos gripped the tarmac as people flooded the airport.
他說,喀布爾被佔領後的第二天,他來到自己在機場的固定崗位,感覺像是到了鬼城:安全部隊和機組人員全都放棄了他們的崗位。到中午時分,人群湧入機場,停機坪上一片混亂。
Gul joined the frenzy, jumping onto four commercial planes — all grounded by the mayhem — before forcing his way onto an American evacuation flight. Even when Americans turned off the air-conditioning and told everyone the plane was broken, no one budged.
古爾也加入了這場混亂,他跳上四架民航飛機——全都因混亂而停飛——然後強行登上了一架美國的撤離航班。即使美國人關掉空調,告訴所有人飛機壞了,也沒有人動一下。
Now, settling into life at Camp As Sayliyah, he said the snap decision to leave weighed on him. His wife and three children under the age of 6 remain in Kabul.
現在,他已經適應了埃斯薩利亞美軍基地的生活,他說出走的突然決定令他心情沉重。他妻子和三個不滿六歲的孩子仍留在喀布爾。
“In the night, I cannot sleep,” he said. “I was a member of security forces, what if my family is targeted? Who is feeding them?”
「晚上我睡不著覺,」他說。「我是安全部隊成員,如果我家人被盯上怎麼辦?誰能養活他們?」
He added, “I am here alone, and they are in Afghanistan, where the situation is terrible.”
他還說,「我一個人在這裡,而他們在阿富汗,那裡的情況真的很糟糕。」
No one knows how long Gul and others will have to wait for screening at the camp, unable to work or send money back to their families.
沒人知道古爾和其他人要在基地等待多久才能接受篩查,他們不能工作,也無法寄錢給家人。
Crowds clamber to use the few phone chargers — often among the only items, other than the clothes they were wearing, that they brought with them. People scavenge for cigarette butts on the ground, salvaging small bits of tobacco. Every day around 5 a.m., a line swells outside the food hall, with people waiting hours to enter, sweat seeping through their clothes in the unrelenting heat. Last week, some in the camp complained of food shortages after being given meals ready to eat — or M.R.E.s — typically used by the military.
人們搶著使用為數不多的手機充電器——除了身上穿的衣服,這往往是他們隨身攜帶的唯一物品。他們尋找地上的煙頭,搶著撿拾小撮煙草。每天早上5點左右,食堂外都排起長隊,要等好幾個小時才能進去,酷暑之下,汗水浸透了人們的衣服。上週,在通常為軍隊準備的即食口糧發放後,基地裡有人抱怨食物短缺。
Those in line offer a window into the chaotic exit from Kabul: There are shopkeepers whose stores were next to the airport, members of the security forces who abandoned their posts there and employees of Kam Air, an Afghan airline, still in their uniforms after jumping on planes.
那些隊伍讓人得以一窺出逃喀布爾的混亂程度:有在機場旁邊經商的店主,有放棄機場崗位的安全部隊成員,也有阿富汗卡姆航空公司(Kam Air)的員工,他們跳上飛機時仍然穿著制服。
Mirwais, 31, arrived at the air base in Qatar after clambering onto an American evacuation flight last week. A former translator for U.S. forces and international organizations, he went into hiding when the Taliban entered Kabul and decided to leave after insurgents searching for him visited his mother’s home.
31歲的米爾韋斯(Mirwais)上週擠上了一架美國撤離航班抵達了卡達的空軍基地。他曾在美軍和國際機構擔任翻譯,塔利班進入喀布爾後,他躲了起來,在搜尋他的武裝分子來到母親家後,他決定離開這裡。
已經逃出阿富汗的翻譯米爾韋斯如今對能否帶走自己的家人感到絕望。
已經逃出阿富汗的翻譯米爾韋斯如今對能否帶走自己的家人感到絕望。 PHOTO BY MIRWAIS
“If I were in Afghanistan, I would be dead right now,” he said. But with each passing day in the camp, he added, hope fades that he will not just survive but start a better life.
「如果我還在阿富汗,現在就沒命了,」他說。但他也說,在基地的一天又一天,讓他逐漸喪失了對開始更好生活而不只是活命的希望。
After days of desperate calls to relatives to try to get his wife and 10-month-old child evacuated, Mirwais said he had all but given up on reuniting with them outside Afghanistan. And his ability to travel on to the United States is anything but certain.
這些天來,他絕望地呼叫親屬,試圖幫妻子和10個月大的孩子撤離,米爾韋斯說,他基本已經放棄了在阿富汗之外與他們團聚的想法。他是否有能力繼續前往美國也還是個問號。
“I have no passport with me, no papers,” he said. “But if I can’t go on to the United States, what will happen to me? How will I support my family?”
「我沒帶護照,沒有證件,」他說。「但如果我去不了美國,接下來會怎樣?我要怎麼養家糊口呢?」

Christina Goldbaum是時報阿富汗喀布爾分社記者。歡迎在Twitter上關注她:@cegoldbaum

Najim Rahim是時報阿富汗喀布爾分社記者。歡迎在Twitter上關注他:@NajimRah

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