美国未兑现的承诺和阿富汗未知的命运

e7be8ee59bbde69caae58591e78eb0e79a84e689bfe8afbae5928ce998bfe5af8ce6b197e69caae79fa5e79a84e591bde8bf90 • 美国未兑现的承诺和阿富汗未知的命运 阿富汗
e7be8ee59bbde69caae58591e78eb0e79a84e689bfe8afbae5928ce998bfe5af8ce6b197e69caae79fa5e79a84e591bde8bf90 • 美国未兑现的承诺和阿富汗未知的命运 阿富汗
Nearly 20 years have passed since Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda executed the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, and President George W. Bush announced that the United States would invade Afghanistan as the first act in a global war against terrorism. Now, the United States is contending with how to define its relationship with the same Islamist rulers it toppled in 2001 — again a question of vengeance or acceptance — and how to try to head off the resurgence of any international terrorist threat rising from Afghanistan.

距离奥萨马·本·拉登(Osama bin Laden)和基地组织于2001年9月11日对美国发动恐怖袭击,乔治·W·布什总统宣布美国将入侵阿富汗作为全球反恐战争的第一步,已经过去了近20年。现在,美国不得不应对如何界定与塔利班——它在2001年推翻的同一伊斯兰统治者——的关系,是复仇还是接受,以及如何试图阻止任何国际恐怖主义威胁从阿富汗卷土重来。

Now, there are smaller prospects of airstrikes in the Afghan countryside that leave the unnamed and faceless dead as data points in a colored bar graph of a barely read United Nations report. No roadside bombs buried in haste, in the dead of night, that might strike a government vehicle or a minibus packed with families.

现在,阿富汗农村发生空袭的可能性变小了,这种空袭曾经让无名死者变成数据点,出现在一份几乎没人看的联合国报告里的彩色条形图中。也不会有人在夜深人静时匆忙掩埋路边炸弹,这种炸弹可能会袭击政府车辆或载着好几家人的小巴。

Instead, there is a widespread anxiety about what the true shape of Taliban rule will be with the Americans truly gone. And there is fear that the chaotic rush of the government’s collapse during the Taliban advance could leave an unfixable economy, ruin and hunger.

相反,人们普遍担心,随着美国人的真正消失,塔利班统治的真实面貌将会如何。人们担心,在塔利班推进期间,政府崩溃的混乱局面可能会导致无法修复的经济、毁灭和饥饿。

The United States’ conflict in Afghanistan was a long war with a quick end, or so it seemed. But the withdrawal’s fate was set more than 18 months ago, when the Trump administration signed an agreement with the Taliban to withdraw from the country by May 1, 2021. In exchange, the Taliban agreed to stop attacking Americans, end mass-casualty attacks on Afghans in cities, and prevent Al Qaeda and other terrorist groups from finding refuge in the country.

美国在阿富汗的冲突是一场旷日持久的战争,最终匆匆结束,至少看起来如此。但撤军的命运是在18个多月前确定的,当时特朗普政府与塔利班签署了一项协议,将于2021年5月1日从该国撤军。作为交换,塔利班同意停止袭击美国人,结束在城市内对阿富汗人的大规模伤亡袭击,并阻止基地组织和其他恐怖组织在该国藏身。

The Taliban’s leverage, earned after years of fighting the world’s most advanced military, multiplied as they captured more remote outposts and checkpoints, then rural villages and districts, then the roads in between them. By the beginning of this year, the Taliban had positioned themselves near several key cities, as the newly inaugurated Biden administration weighed whether to honor the agreement made under President Donald J. Trump to depart.

在与世界上最先进的军队作战多年后,塔利班占领了更多偏远的前哨和检查站,然后是乡村和地区,然后是连结它们的道路,这大幅增加了他们的谈判资本。到今年年初,塔利班已驻扎在几个主要城市附近,而新上任的拜登政府正在权衡是否履行在唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J. Trump)总统领导下达成的撤军协议。

Afghan troops fled more than fought, but those who were killed with their chests facing their enemy died for a cause that not even their leaders seemed to believe in.

阿富汗军队更多是在逃跑而不是战斗。那些用胸膛迎接敌人的人为信念而死,但似乎连他们的领导人都不相信他们的信念。

Even before Mr. Biden’s announcement and Mr. Trump’s deal with the Taliban, the United States had been in stages of withdrawal since December 2009, when President Barack Obama announced both a surge of tens of thousands troops and their departure by 2014.

甚至在拜登宣布及特朗普与塔利班达成协议之前,美国自2009年12月以来一直处于撤军阶段,当时奥巴马总统宣布将增兵数万人,并定于2014年撤离。

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