美国商界敦促拜登推进对华贸易政策

e7be8ee59bbde59586e7958ce695a6e4bf83e68b9ce799bbe68ea8e8bf9be5afb9e58d8ee8b4b8e69893e694bfe7ad96 • 美国商界敦促拜登推进对华贸易政策 对华贸易, 拜登政府

美国商界敦促拜登推进对华贸易政策

Businesses Push Biden to Develop China Trade Policy

加利福尼亚的奥克兰港是接收中国进口货物的主要港口之一。任何降低关税的决定都可能在美国产生政治影响,对中国的强硬心态已经渗透到美国两党。
加利福尼亚的奥克兰港是接收中国进口货物的主要港口之一。任何降低关税的决定都可能在美国产生政治影响,对中国的强硬心态已经渗透到美国两党。 JIM WILSON/THE NEW YORK TIMES
WASHINGTON — More than seven months into the Biden administration, American businesses say they are growing increasingly frustrated by the White House’s approach to China, with confrontational policies imposed during the Trump era still in place and President Biden offering little clarity about economic engagement with the world’s second-largest economy.
华盛顿——美国商界表示,拜登政府执政七个多月以来,他们对白宫的对华态度越来越失望,特朗普时代施加的对抗性政策仍然存在,拜登总统在与世界第二大经济体的经济交往方面没有提供多少明确的信息。
The relationship between the two economic superpowers remains deeply fractured. American import duties still exist on roughly $360 billion worth of Chinese goods, and almost all of the exemptions that shielded more than 2,000 products from those tariffs have expired. A thicket of export controls and bans are still in place, leaving U.S. technology giants such as Qualcomm, Intel and Google in the lurch over how to approach the Chinese market and offering little hope that the decoupling of the world’s two largest economies will be reversed anytime soon.
两个经济超级大国之间的关系仍然存在严重裂痕。美国对价值约3600亿美元的中国商品征收的进口关税仍然存在,而且为2000多种产品提供的豁免几乎都已过期。大量出口管制和禁令仍然存在,使得高通(Qualcomm)、英特尔(Intel)和谷歌(Google)等美国科技巨头在进入中国市场问题上陷入困境,世界两个最大经济体的脱钩在短期内几乎无望逆转。
To the dismay of some American business leaders, Mr. Biden has amplified some of the Trump administration’s punitive moves. In July, the Biden administration expanded the list of Chinese officials under sanctions by the United States for their role in undermining Hong Kong’s democratic institutions. In June, the president issued an executive order adding more Chinese companies to a prohibition on American investments in Chinese firms that have links to the country’s military or that sell surveillance technology used to repress dissent or religious minorities.
令一些美国商界领袖失望的是,拜登放大了特朗普政府的一些惩罚性举措。7月,拜登政府扩大了受美国制裁的中国官员名单,理由是他们参与了对香港民主的破坏。美国已禁止投资与中国军方有联系的中国公司,或出售用于压制异见人士及宗教少数群体的监控技术的中国公司,6月,总统发布了一项行政命令,在禁止名单中加入了更多中国公司。
Yet Mr. Biden and his top advisers have yet to elucidate how they view economic relations with Beijing, saying they will make the administration’s approach known once a broad review of China trade policy concludes. But the review has stretched on for months with no public timeline for its conclusion.
不过,拜登和他的高级顾问尚未阐明他们如何看待与北京的经济关系,他们表示,一旦对中国贸易政策的广泛评估结束,他们将公布政府的做法。但评估已经持续了几个月,并没有公布得出结论的时间表。
As a result, businesses are lobbying heavily for the tariffs to be removed, which would make it easier for them to rely on factories in China instead of making investments in the United States or elsewhere. And they want assurances that they can do business with a financially important market.
因此,企业正在大力游说取消关税,这将使它们更容易依靠中国的工厂,而不是在美国或其他地方投资。他们希望得到保证,他们可以和一个在财务上很重要的市场做生意。
“There has been frustration for the business community at the lack of concrete China economic policy,” said Charles Freeman, the senior vice president for Asia at the U.S. Chamber of Commerce. “It’s not as if this crowd came in without any experience or any preconceived thinking about China.”
“商界一直对缺乏具体的中国经济政策感到失望,”美国商会(U.S. Chamber of Commerce)负责亚洲事务的高级副会长查尔斯·弗里曼(Charles Freeman)说。“这群人上任时并不是毫无经验,或者对中国没有任何先入为主的看法。”
The future of the U.S. trade relationship with China is one of the biggest global economic questions confronting Mr. Biden and his advisers. China has thrown huge resources behind its economic ambitions and plans to dominate cutting-edge industries like artificial intelligence and robotics by providing government subsidies to Chinese firms and using other tactics, including espionage. While the Trump administration signed an initial trade deal with China that included purchase commitments for agricultural and other goods, the agreement failed to address a number of major concerns, including China’s state-owned enterprises and industrial subsidies.
美中贸易关系的未来是拜登及其顾问面临的最大全球经济问题之一。中国在其经济雄心背后投入了巨大的资源,并计划通过向中国企业提供政府补贴和使用包括间谍在内的其他策略,来主宰人工智能和机器人等尖端行业。虽然特朗普政府与中国签署了一项初步贸易协议,其中包括对农产品和其他商品的购买承诺,但该协议未能解决中国对国有企业和工业补贴等一系列重大问题。
During his White House bid, Mr. Biden assailed President Donald J. Trump over his trade war and promised to enlist allies to counter China over its trade practices. Since taking office, Mr. Biden has resolved a longstanding trade spat with the European Union and persuaded European officials to adopt a more assertive trade policy toward China this year. And he has pitched his infrastructure plan as a way to counter Beijing, saying it would “put us in a position to win the global competition with China in the upcoming years.”
在竞选总统期间,拜登抨击唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J. Trump)总统的贸易战,并承诺要争取盟友,就中国的贸易行为进行反击。自上任以来,拜登解决了与欧盟长期存在的贸易争端,并说服欧洲官员今年对中国采取更强硬的贸易政策。他还将他的基础设施计划作为对抗北京的一种方式,称这将“使我们在未来几年赢得与中国的全球竞争”。
But the administration has said little about whether it intends to restart economic talks and address outstanding issues, including tariffs. At times, officials have offered somewhat discordant views.
但对于是否打算重启经济谈判和解决关税等未决问题,政府几乎没有表态。有时,官员们会提出一些矛盾的观点。
Treasury Secretary Janet L. Yellen told The New York Times this summer that tariffs had harmed American consumers, but she has also warned that Chinese subsidies for exporters pose a challenge for the United States. The United States trade representative, Katherine Tai, has described the tariffs as providing leverage.
今年夏天,财政部长珍妮特·L·耶伦(Janet L. Yellen)告诉《纽约时报》(The New York Times),关税损害了美国消费者的利益,但她也警告说,中国对出口商的补贴对美国构成了挑战。美国贸易代表戴琪(Katherine Tai)称这些关税是谈判的筹码
Asked on Wednesday about the administration’s review of the tariffs, Jen Psaki, the White House press secretary, said, “I don’t have any timeline for you on when that review will be completed.”
周三,当被问及政府对关税的审查时,白宫新闻秘书珍·萨基(Jen Psaki)说:“关于审查何时完成,我没有这方面的信息。”
Business impatience with the administration’s approach is mounting. Corporate leaders say they need clarity about whether American companies will be able to do business with China, which is one of the biggest and fastest-growing markets. Business groups say their members are being put at a competitive disadvantage by the tariffs, which have raised costs for American importers.
企业对政府的做法日渐失去耐心。企业领导人表示,他们需要明确知道美国公司是否能够与中国开展业务,中国是最大、增长最快的市场之一。商业团体表示,他们的成员因关税而处于竞争劣势,这增加了美国进口商的成本。
“We should be doing everything we can to increase China’s use and dependence on American technology products,” Patrick Gelsinger, the chief executive of Intel, said in an interview last week. The administration is “struggling to lay out a framework for how they have a policy-driven engagement with China,” he said.
英特尔首席执行官帕特里克·格尔辛格(Patrick Gelsinger)上周在接受采访时表示:“我们应该竭尽全力增加中国对美国科技产品的使用和依赖。”他说,政府“在与中国进行政策驱动的接触上难以制定一个框架”。
“To me, just saying, ‘Let’s be tough on China,’ that’s not a policy, that’s a campaign slogan,” he added. “It’s time to get to the real work of having a real policy of trade relationships and engagement around business exports and technology with China.”
他还说:“对我来说,只是讲‘我们要对中国强硬’不是政策,而是竞选口号。现在是时候开始切实制定与中国的贸易关系政策,并围绕商业出口和技术与中国接触了。”
In early August, a group of influential U.S. business groups sent a letter to Ms. Yellen and Ms. Tai urging the administration to restart trade talks with China and cut tariffs on imported Chinese goods.
8月初,一批有影响力的美国商业团体致信耶伦和戴琪,敦促政府重启与中国的贸易谈判,并降低对中国进口商品的关税。
“The main kind of dilemma that companies face right now is just uncertainty,” said Craig Allen, the president of the U.S.-China Business Council, which organized the letter. “Will the tariffs remain in place? Are they in place in perpetuity? What is the exclusion process to request an exemption from the tariffs? Nobody knows.”
“企业目前面临的主要困境就是不确定性,”组织发出这封信的美中贸易全国委员会(U.S.-China Business Council)主席克雷格·艾伦(Craig Allen)说。“关税会持续存在吗?它们是否永远存在?申请关税豁免的程序是什么?没人知道。”
Mr. Allen said his group had organized the letter because it wanted to make sure that businesses’ views, in addition to those of labor and environmental groups, would be taken into account during the Biden administration’s China review.
艾伦说,他的团体组织这封信是因为它想确保在拜登政府对中国进行审查期间,除了劳工和环保组织的意见外,企业的意见也会被纳入考量。
“Many find it ironic that the Biden administration is following so closely the playbook laid down by the Trump administration on China,” he said.
他说:“拜登政府如此密切地遵循特朗普政府制定的针对中国的游戏法则,许多人认为这很讽刺。”
Other organizations that signed the letter included the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and the Business Roundtable as well as groups representing sectors of the economy with close business ties to China, such as the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, the Semiconductor Industry Association and the American Farm Bureau Federation.
签署这封信的其他组织包括美国商会和商业圆桌会议(Business Roundtable),以及代表与中国有密切业务联系的经济部门的团体,如美国药物研究和制造商协会(Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America)、半导体行业协会(Semiconductor Industry Association)和美国农场局联合会(American Farm Bureau Federation)。
“We’re now dealing with all these other supply chain disruption issues that are costing companies millions of dollars,” said Jonathan Gold, the vice president for supply chain and customs policy at the National Retail Federation, which also signed the letter and represents a sector that has become heavily dependent on imports from China. “To have the tariffs on top of that is difficult for planning purposes.”
美国零售联合会(National Retail Federation)负责供应链和海关政策的副总裁乔纳森·戈尔德(Jonathan Gold)表示:“我们现在正在处理所有其他的供应链中断问题,这些问题给公司造成成百上千万美元的损失。”作为该信签署人之一,他代表了一个严重依赖中国进口的领域。“在此基础上征收关税让规划变得困难。”
Business groups are not uniformly in favor of lifting tariffs. The National Council of Textile Organizations, which represents the American textile industry, wants the administration to keep tariffs on finished apparel and home textile products from China.
商业团体并非一致赞成取消关税。代表美国纺织业的全国纺织组织委员(National Council of Textile Organizations)会希望政府保持对来自中国的成衣和家纺产品的关税。
“We have been pretty strong in our message to the administration saying please continue this approach on getting tough on China,” said Kimberly Glas, the textile group’s president and chief executive.
该纺织组织主席兼首席执行官金伯利·格拉斯(Kimberly Glas)表示:“我们向政府传达的信息非常强烈——请继续对中国采取强硬态度。”
Any decision on rolling back tariffs could also have domestic political implications in the United States, where a tough-on-China mentality has permeated both major parties. Any steps by the Biden administration to roll back Trump-era policies toward Beijing could be seized on by political opponents seeking to paint Mr. Biden as insufficiently tough on China at a time when the country is engaged in a rapid military buildup.
任何取消关税的决定还可能对美国国内政治产生影响,在美国,对中国的强硬心态已渗透到两大党派中。在中国进行快速军备建设之际,拜登政府为推翻特朗普时代对北京的政策而采取的任何措施,都可能被政治反对派利用,他们试图将拜登描述为对中国不够强硬。
美国贸易代表戴琪没有透露拜登政府在未来几个月可能寻求怎样的措施。
美国贸易代表戴琪没有透露拜登政府在未来几个月可能寻求怎样的措施。 PETE MAROVICH FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES
When asked about the administration’s review of China trade policy, Ms. Tai has responded by saying she was aware that “time is of the essence.” However, she has refrained from offering a preview of what steps the administration may seek to take.
当被问及政府对中国贸易政策的审查时,戴琪回应说,她知道“时间至关重要”。然而,她没有透露政府大概会采取哪些措施。
“In terms of how we need to approach this trade relationship,” Ms. Tai said at a virtual event last week, “we need to approach it with deliberation.”
“就我们需要如何处理这种贸易关系而言,”戴琪上周在一次虚拟会议中说,“我们需要以深思熟虑的态度对待。”
Keith Bradsher自北京、Jim Tankersley自华盛顿对本文有报道贡献。

Thomas Kaplan是时报驻华盛顿记者。他在2010年加入时报,此前曾报道两次总统大选,以及国会和纽约政治新闻。欢迎在Twitter上关注他 @thomaskaplan

Alan Rappeport是驻华盛顿的经济政策记者。他负责报道财政部,并撰写特朗普总统时代有关税收、贸易和财政事务有关的新闻。他曾为《金融时报》和《经济学人》工作。欢迎在Twitter上关注他 @arappeport

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