e697a0e6b395e68991e781ade79a84e5a4a7e781abefbc9ae58aa0e5b79ee5b1b1e781abe9a284e7a4bae79d80e6808ee6a0b7e79a84e69caae69da5 • 无法扑灭的大火:加州山火预示着怎样的未来 加州山火


To Save Lake Tahoe, They Spared No Expense. The Fire Came Over the Ridge Anyway.

SOUTH LAKE TAHOE, Calif. — They sent thousands of firefighters, 25 helicopters and an arsenal of more than 400 fire engines and 70 water trucks. Yet the fire still advanced.
They dropped retardant chemicals through an ash-filled sky and bulldozed trees and brush to slow the march of the flames through the steep and rugged terrain of the Sierra Nevada. Yet the fire still advanced.
Bursting across a granite ridge into the Lake Tahoe basin, the Caldor fire now threatens tens of thousands of homes and hotels that ring the lake.
卡爾多大火(Caldor fire)衝破花崗岩山脊,進入塔霍湖盆地,現在威脅到環湖的數萬民居和酒店。
On Tuesday, the smoke-choked streets of South Lake Tahoe, the most populous city on the lake, were deserted, save for police patrol cars and an occasional convoy of fire vehicles. Thousands of residents and tourists had been evacuated the day before.
The lake, renowned for its bright blue hues and the evergreen forests that surround it, was smothered in a slate of sickly orange-gray haze. On the Nevada side of the border, which has not yet been evacuated, one industry was still limping along: A trickle of gamblers sat at slot machines to the whooshing sound of large air purifiers that attempted to keep out the pungent smoke. The air quality index was nearing 500, a level considered hazardous.
Battling the Caldor fire has been humbling and harrowing for California firefighters. Experts believe that the challenge is a cautionary tale for future megafires in the West and lays bare a certain futility in trying to fully control the most aggressive wildfires.
“No matter how many people you have out on these fires, it’s not a large enough work force to put the fire out,” said Malcolm North, a fire expert with the U.S. Forest Service and a professor at the University of California, Davis.
「不管投入多少人滅火,都不足以把火撲滅,」加州大學戴維斯分校(University of California, Davis)教授、美國林務局消防專家馬爾科姆·諾斯(Malcolm North)說:
“You can save particular areas or particular homes,” Professor North said. “But the fire is pretty much going to do what it’s going to do until the weather shifts.”
On Monday, propelled by strong winds, the fire crested a granite ridge that officials had hoped would serve as a natural barrier. Embers leapfrogged past firefighting crews and descended toward the valley floor just miles from South Lake Tahoe. By early Tuesday, the fire had taken hold in the Tahoe basin. Stands of pine ignited by flying embers were fully engulfed in flames, casting a bright orange glow into the night sky.
It was only the second time, officials said, that a wildfire that began on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada crossed into the eastern side. The first was also this summer: the Dixie fire, the second largest in California history. No deaths have been reported in either fire.
官員們表示,這是內華達山脈西麓開始的野火第二次蔓延到東麓。第一次同樣發生在今年夏天,那就是迪克西大火(Dixie fire),是加州歷史上第二大火災。兩起火災均未造成人員死亡。
The authorities say about 27,000 firefighters were battling blazes across the country, about 15,000 of them in California. All national forests in California will be closed by Tuesday night. Hundreds of soldiers and airmen and several military aircraft have been sent by the National Guard. But the resources are no match for the ferocious blazes, which continue to outpace firefighters and explode across the state.
The blazes in Sierra forests have exposed the domino effects of climate change on firefighting challenges: Frequent heat waves and overall higher temperatures have desiccated West Coast flora, making it more vulnerable to large fires. Droughts have weakened trees, encouraging insect infestations that have contributed to the deaths of close to 150 million trees. This creates more fuel for fires.
Scientists say there is also a correlation between global warming and the increased wind conditions that have fanned fierce wildfires across the state. And they point to a need for better forest management, thinning out some of the thickest woods.
The chaotic way these megafires spread was on display in the hills above South Lake Tahoe on Monday. Kyle Hukkanen was leading a crew of 12 inmate firefighters armed with axes, shovels and chain saws. They bounded down a steep hillside of granite boulders and evergreen trees until they reached a spot where wisps of smoke were rising from the ground.
週一,南塔霍湖上方的山丘上,可以看到大火蔓延帶來的混亂。凱爾·胡卡寧(Kyle Hukkanen)帶著12名攜帶斧頭、鏟子和鏈鋸的囚犯消防隊員。他們沿著花崗岩巨石和常青樹環繞的陡峭山坡一路狂奔,來到一個地面上冒出縷縷煙霧的地方。
They dug and sprayed the smoldering fire with water before ascending back to their idling truck. “This is not good,” Mr. Hukkanen said as gusts of wind fed the spot fire on the hillsides. The radio crackled with reports of spotting farther down the mountain toward South Lake Tahoe, and Mr. Hukkanen and his crew disappeared down a smoke-shrouded road.
Fire specialists say some firefighting tools are appropriate on a smaller scale but outmatched by the huge fires of recent years.
In the hills and gullies where the Caldor fire has burned 190,000 acres over the past two weeks, helicopters dropped large buckets of water — thousands of gallons at a time — but they hardly seemed a match.
“That’s great for protecting a neighborhood, but when you think about the size of a 750,000-acre fire, that’s nothing,” Professor North, the U.S. Forest Service expert, said of dropping water or retardant in large swaths of forest.
He and others added that the Sisyphean task of fire containment pointed to a desperate need for better mitigation.
Controlled burns that embrace Indigenous methods to use “good” fire to fight destructive megafires have become an increasingly accepted method in recent years, but experts say the state has a lot of catching up to do.
On the receiving end of the worsening blazes are the residents who wonder where, if anywhere, will be safe from wildfire.
Among the evacuees from South Lake Tahoe were Darren Cobrae, a real estate investor, and his partner, Stephanie Cothern, who was driving the couple’s car toward the Nevada state line.
從南塔霍湖撤離的人中有房地產投資者達倫·科布雷(Darren Cobrae)和伴侶史蒂芬妮·科瑟恩(Stephanie Cothern),後者開著兩人的車駛向內華達州的邊界。
Inside were bags of clothing, two large parrots and three dogs, Banana, Freddy and Copper.
Mr. Cobrae said he moved to South Lake Tahoe from Southern California, where his home was nearly burned in a wildfire in 2007.
“I figured I would be safe in this city,” Mr. Cobrae said. “And now this,” he said, pointing to a sky thickening with smoke.

Thomas Fuller是《紐約時報》舊金山分社社長。在搬往加利福尼亞州前,他曾在歐洲和東南亞等地的40多個國家,為時報和《國際先驅論壇報》進行報導。歡迎在TwitterFacebook上關注他。

Livia Albeck-Ripka是時報駐加利福尼亞記者,她曾在澳洲分社報導。歡迎在Twitter上關注她:@livia_ar