拜登:美国用军事力量“重塑其他国家”的时代已结束

时代结束

拜登:美国用军事力量“重塑其他国家”的时代已结束

Biden Defends Afghan Pullout and Declares an End to Nation-Building

周二,白宫,拜登总统就结束阿富汗战争发表讲话。
周二,白宫,拜登总统就结束阿富汗战争发表讲话。 DOUG MILLS/THE NEW YORK TIMES
WASHINGTON — President Biden on Tuesday forcefully rejected criticism of his decision to end America’s 20-year war in Afghanistan, hailing what he called the “extraordinary success” of the evacuation of Kabul and declaring the end of an era in which the United States uses military power “to remake other countries.”
华盛顿——拜登总统周二强硬驳斥了对他决定结束美国在阿富汗长达20年战争的批评,赞扬了他所说的撤离喀布尔的“格外成功”,并宣布美国使用军事力量“重塑其他国家”的时代结束了。
Speaking to the nation less than a week after a terrorist bombing killed 13 service members at the Kabul airport during a chaotic rush to leave the country, Mr. Biden said the costs to the United States would have been even higher if he had allowed the nation to remain mired for years in a civil war that has dragged on for decades. In blunt terms, he claimed the only alternative to the departure he oversaw was another escalation of the war.
拜登向全国发表讲话不到一周前,在人们急于离开阿富汗的混乱中,恐怖分子在喀布尔机场制造了炸弹袭击,导致13名美国军人死亡。拜登在讲话中表示,如果他让美国在今后几年继续深陷在一场已经持续了几十年的内战中的话,美国会付出更高的代价。他直截了当地宣称,不在他指导下撤军的唯一其他选择是战争再次升级。
“When I hear we could have, should have continued the so-called low-grade effort in Afghanistan, at low risk to our service members, at low cost,” Mr. Biden said in the 26-minute speech, “I don’t think enough people understand how much we’ve asked of the 1 percent of this country who put that uniform on.”
拜登在这篇26分钟的讲话中说,“每当我听到我们本可以、本应该在阿富汗继续所谓的低级别努力,让我们的军人面临低风险、低代价的时候,我认为没有足够多的人明白,我们已经要求这个国家穿上军装的那1%付出了多少。”
“There’s nothing low grade or low risk or low cost about any war,” he continued. “It’s time to end the war in Afghanistan.”
“任何战争都没有低级别、低风险或低代价一说,”他继续说道。“是时候结束阿富汗战争了。”
The president delivered his remarks just shy of 20 years after the United States ousted the Taliban from power in the wake of the Sept. 11 attacks, and just a day after the last American troops and diplomats departed the country, which is once again under Taliban rule.
拜登发表讲话的时间与美国在9·11袭击后将塔利班赶下台的20周年差得不远,是在最后一批美国军队和外交官离开阿富汗仅一天后,后者现已再次处于塔利班统治之下
Mr. Biden declared that he believed with “all of my heart” that he had made a wise decision. But he appeared defiant as he sought to counter a torrent of criticism from Democrats and Republicans — and from some families of the service members killed in Kabul last week — for his handling of the withdrawal.
拜登宣称,他“全心全意地”相信自己做了一个明智的决定。但他在试图反驳来自民主党人和共和党人——以及上周在喀布尔遇害军人的一些家属——对他处理撤军的连珠炮批评时,他似乎没把这些批评放在眼里。
The president refused to offer any sort of mea culpa on Tuesday, even as the Taliban celebrated their “independence” from America with gunfire in the streets of Kabul.
总统在周二拒绝作出任何形式的认错表示,尽管塔利班已在喀布尔街头用炮火庆祝他们从美国获得了“独立”。
Instead, the president sought to justify his handling of the final weeks of the war, saying that the U.S. military and its diplomats deserved credit and thanks for ferrying out more than 120,000 Americans and Afghan allies in the face of the Taliban takeover and terrorist threats from ISIS-K, an affiliate of the Islamic State.
总统反而试图证明他对战争最后几周的处理是正确的,他说,美国军队和外交官应该得到赞扬和感谢,他们在塔利班接管后、在伊斯兰国呼罗珊分支(ISIS-K)的恐怖威胁面前,将逾12万美国人和阿富汗盟友运出了阿富汗。
Mr. Biden expressed deep remorse for the loss of lives in the explosions at the airport last Thursday, including scores of Afghans, but he dismissed the argument that his administration should have — or could have — conducted the final withdrawal in a “more orderly manner” by evacuating people earlier, before the Taliban takeover of the country was complete.
虽然拜登对上周四在机场爆炸造成的生命损失(包括上百名阿富汗人)深表遗憾,但他驳斥了有关他的政府本应该——或本可能——在塔利班完全接管阿富汗之前以“更有秩序的方式”将人们更早撤离的说法。
“I respectfully disagree,” Mr. Biden said, at one point pounding his finger on the lectern and delivering a sense of righteous indignation about the second-guessing from critics on Capitol Hill and others outside the administration.
“恕我不能同意,”拜登说。他一度用手指敲打讲台,对国会山的批评者和政府之外其他人的事后批评表示了义愤。
示威者上周六在华盛顿呼吁,8月31日之后继续从阿富汗撤离的工作。
示威者上周六在华盛顿呼吁,8月31日之后继续从阿富汗撤离的工作。 STEFANI REYNOLDS FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES
At the heart of Mr. Biden’s argument is a bet that Americans — a majority of whom say they support an end to the war — as well as historians will judge his decision to withdraw troops as the only acceptable one, given the situation on the ground when he came into office at the beginning of the year.
拜登为自己辩论的核心是押注美国人(其中大多数说他们支持结束战争)和历史学家将作出判断,鉴于他年初担任总统时的实地情况,他的撤军决定是唯一可接受的决定。
Withdrawing from Afghanistan was a central campaign promise, and White House officials believe that a majority of voters will reward the president for following through on what he said he would do.
从阿富汗撤军是拜登竞选时的一个核心承诺,白宫官员相信,大多数选民会因总统兑现了承诺而奖励他。
Mr. Biden portrayed himself as a leader who took the only course available to him through a thicket of bad choices, laying blame on the Afghan Army and his presidential predecessor, Donald J. Trump, who reached an accord with the Taliban last year that committed the United States to fully withdraw by this past May. He said that the United States had “no vital interest in Afghanistan other than to prevent an attack on America’s homeland” and that the war should have ended a decade earlier.
拜登将自己描绘成一名在一团乱麻的糟糕选择中采取唯一可行办法的领导人,他把糟糕的情况归咎于阿富汗军队和他的前任唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J. Trump),特朗普已在去年与塔利班达成协议,承诺美国在今年5月将军队全部撤走。拜登说,美国“除了防止在美国本土发生袭击外,在阿富汗没有任何重要利益”,这场战争早在10年前就该结束了。
“That was the choice, the real choice between leaving or escalating,” Mr. Biden said, his voice frequently rising to sort of an indoor shout. “I was not going to extend this forever war.”
“只有一种选择,真正的选择是离开还是升级,”拜登说,他讲话的声音经常提高到像是在室内大喊。“我不打算让这场战争永远持续下去。”
In making that argument, Mr. Biden offered a glimpse of a different American foreign policy in the post-9/11 world. He said he would shun ground wars with large troop deployments, instead favoring a strategy guided more by economic and cybersecurity competition with China and Russia and focused on countering threats with military technology that allows strikes against terrorists without having large contingents of troops based on the ground in a place like Afghanistan.
做出这个论证,拜登让人们看到了9·11袭击后的世界里一种不同的美国外交政策。他说,他将避免动用大量军队的地面战争,而是更倾向于一种以与中国和俄罗斯在经济和网络安全领域的竞争为指导的战略,将精力集中在用军事技术来对抗威胁上,以便在没有大量部队在阿富汗等地驻扎的情况下打击恐怖分子。
Mr. Biden called it a “new era” of the use of American power in which the United States would no longer seek to reshape its rivals in the way three previous presidents tried to do in Afghanistan and Iraq. He said that “the world is changing” and that American leadership must change with it.
拜登将其称之为美国实力使用的“新时代”,美国将不再寻求重塑竞争对手,像他之前的三任总统试图在阿富汗和伊拉克所做的那样。拜登说,“世界在变”,美国的领导地位也必须随之而变。
“As we turn the page on the foreign policy that has guided our nation the last two decades, we’ve got to learn from our mistakes,” he said.
“随着我们对过去20年来指导我们国家的外交政策翻开新的一页,我们必须从我们的错误中吸取教训,”总统说。
He suggested two lessons: setting missions with “clear achievable goals” and staying focused on the fundamental national security interests of the United States.
他暗示了两个教训:制定“有明确可实现目标”的使命,以及把注意力集中在美国国家安全的根本利益上。
But neither the president nor his aides conceded making any mistakes in how they ended the war, other than placing their faith in an Afghan Army that Mr. Biden said had not proved to be a “strong adversary” for the Taliban. Instead, Mr. Biden directly challenged the idea that the United States could have conducted a more orderly exit, or started evacuations sooner.
但总统及其助手们都不承认他们在如何结束战争上犯了任何错误,除了不该对阿富汗军队抱有信心外,拜登称阿富汗军队没能证明自己是塔利班的“强大对手”。他反而直接挑战了美国本可能更有序地撤出阿富汗,或更早开始将人撤离的说法。
“Imagine, if we had begun evacuations in June or July, bringing in thousands of American troops and evacuating more than 120,000 people in the middle of a civil war, there still would have been a rush to the airport, a breakdown in confidence in control of the government, and it still would have been a very difficult and dangerous mission,” he said.
“想想看,如果我们在6月或7月就开始撤人,将数千名美国士兵撤出,在内战仍在进行时将逾12万人撤走的话,仍会出现人们涌向机场、对阿富汗政府的控制能力信心崩溃的问题,这仍会是一项非常困难和危险的任务。”
Mr. Biden acknowledged that “about 100 to 200” Americans who want to get out of Afghanistan were left behind when the final troops withdrew. But he said the United States would continue to make diplomatic efforts to help them leave in the days ahead.
拜登承认,最后一批部队撤出阿富汗时,仍“有大约100到200名”希望离开阿富汗的美国人被落下了。但他说美国将继续通过外交努力帮助这些人在未来几天离开阿富汗。
“The bottom line,” he insisted, “is there is no evacuation from the end of a war that you can run without the kinds of complexities, challenges and threats we faced. None.”
“最重要的是,”他坚称,“在战争结束时,没有那种不复杂、没有挑战和不面临威胁就能进行撤离的情况。没有。”
In his speech, the president said his new approach to dealing with the world would not lead to the kind of America First isolationism of Mr. Trump.
总统在讲话中说,他与世界打交道的新方式不会导致特朗普的那种“美国优先”的孤立主义。
“We will continue to speak out for the basic rights of the Afghan people, especially women and girls, as we speak out for women and girls all around the globe,” Mr. Biden said.
“我们将继续为阿富汗人民,特别是妇女和女童的基本权利大声疾呼,就像我们为全球各地的妇女和女童大声疾呼那样,”拜登说。
And he downplayed the messiness of the U.S. exit from Afghanistan, offering assertions that critics say stretch the truth.
他淡化了美国从阿富汗撤军的混乱,并断言批评者的说法夸大了事实真相。
He said officials had always assumed that the Afghan national security forces would be a strong adversary to the Taliban. In fact, numerous intelligence assessments inside the government, as well as outside experts, had said for years that the Afghan forces were proving to be weak and ineffective.
他说,官员们一直认为阿富汗国家安全部队将是塔利班的强大对手。事实上,政府内部和外部专家的许多情报评估多年来都认为,阿富汗部队正在被证明是一支软弱无效的力量。
Mr. Biden also boasted that his administration had reached out “19 times” to Americans living in Afghanistan and offered them “multiple warnings” to leave the country as the Taliban approached. But he did not mention the numerous times his administration rejected advice from human rights groups, lawmakers and others to begin evacuations earlier.
拜登还自夸说,他的政府曾“19次”向生活在阿富汗的美国人提供帮助,向他们发出“多次警告”,叫他们在塔利班逼近时离开阿富汗。但是他没有提他的政府曾多次拒绝人权组织、立法者和其他人提出的更早开始将人撤离的建议。
上周抵达维吉尼亚州杜勒斯国际机场的阿富汗撤离人员。
上周抵达维吉尼亚州杜勒斯国际机场的阿富汗撤离人员。 SARAHBETH MANEY/THE NEW YORK TIMES
The president cast the country’s final departure from Afghanistan as a moral necessity, underscoring his refusal to sacrifice the lives of more American service members to a war that has long since strayed from its original purpose. But the cost of that moral clarity was high, even at the end: 13 more service members lost as the United States raced to evacuate Americans and allies.
总统将美国最终从阿富汗撤军描述为一种道义上的需要,并强调他拒绝让更多美国军人的生命牺牲在一场早已偏离其初衷的战争中。但这种道德的明确性有很高的代价,甚至在最后:随着美国加速将公民和盟友撤离,又有13名军人死在了阿富汗。
Mr. Biden said the nation owed a debt of gratitude to the troops who died in the evacuation mission.
拜登说,美国对在撤离行动中牺牲的士兵欠下了感激之情。
“Thirteen heroes gave their lives,” he said. “We owe them and their families a debt of gratitude we can never repay, but we should never, ever, ever forget.”
“13名英雄付出了生命,”他说。“我们对他们和他们的家人欠下了永远无法还清的感激之情,我们永远、永远、永远都不该忘记他们。”
拜登发表讲话的时间与美国在9·11袭击后将塔利班赶下台的20周年差得不远。
拜登发表讲话的时间与美国在9·11袭击后将塔利班赶下台的20周年差得不远。 JIM HUYLEBROEK FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES
For more than two weeks, the rushed exit of troops from Afghanistan, and the chaos and violence around the airport, have diverted the White House from the president’s domestic agenda.
在两周多的时间里,美军从阿富汗匆忙撤离以及机场周围的混乱和暴力事件,已转移了白宫对总统国内议事日程的注意力。
Mr. Biden’s speech comes as White House officials are hoping to wind down a difficult episode for his presidency and shift his focus to the domestic crises at hand — including the Delta variant wave of the coronavirus pandemic and the aftermath of Hurricane Ida’s destructive path through the Gulf Coast.
拜登发表讲话是在白宫官员希望让他总统任期的一个困难阶段告一段落,将他的精力转移到应对手头的国内危机上,包括新冠病毒德尔塔变异株引发的又一波大流行,以及飓风“艾达”(Ida)给墨西哥湾沿岸造成的破坏性后果
Jen Psaki, the White House press secretary, told reporters on Tuesday that Mr. Biden would soon turn to a push in Congress to pass key provisions of his multitrillion-dollar economic agenda, including major spending on infrastructure and social services, along with directly addressing the pandemic and the concerns of parents of children heading back to school.
白宫新闻秘书珍·萨基(Jen Psaki)周二对记者说,拜登很快会将注意力转向推动国会通过他的数万亿美元经济议程的关键部分上去,包括基础设施和社会服务方面的重要支出,并将对新冠大流行和家长担心孩子返校的问题给出直接的解决方案。
“There are a range of issues he’s eager to communicate about,” Ms. Psaki said.
“他渴望就一系列问题进行沟通,”萨基说。
 

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