关于全美最严厉限制堕胎法案,你应该知道的六个问题

e585b3e4ba8ee585a8e7be8ee69c80e4b8a5e58e89e99990e588b6e5a095e8838ee6b395e6a188efbc8ce4bda0e5ba94e8afa5e79fa5e98193e79a84e585ade4b8aa • 关于全美最严厉限制堕胎法案,你应该知道的六个问题 德克萨斯州

关于全美最严厉限制堕胎法案,你应该知道的六个问题

Answers to Questions About the Texas Abortion Law

周三,堕胎权支持者在得克萨斯州议会大厦外示威。
周三,堕胎权支持者在得克萨斯州议会大厦外示威。 MONTINIQUE MONROE FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES
A Texas law banning most abortions after about six weeks of pregnancy went into effect on Wednesday, despite the 1973 Supreme Court decision that established a constitutional right to the procedure, making the state the most restrictive in the nation in terms of access to abortion services.
虽然最高法院在1973年的决定确立了堕胎的宪法权利,但在周三,得克萨斯州在大多数情况下禁止怀孕约六周后堕胎的法律生效,使得该州成为对堕胎服务实施最严厉限制的州。
Other states have passed similar laws, but those measures face legal challenges. The Texas law is the first to be implemented, after the Supreme Court did not act on a request to block it. (The justices may yet do so.)
其他州也通过了类似的法律,但相关措施面临法律挑战。得克萨斯州的这项法律将是首个被实施的,此前最高法院没有对阻止该法律的请求采取行动。(法官们仍然可能采取行动予以阻止。)
Because of the way the law was written, however, it may be difficult to challenge in court, representing a sea change in the battle over abortion rights and inviting imitation by other jurisdictions seeking to tamp down access to abortion.
然而,由于该法案的措辞,在法庭上提出质疑可能很困难。这是堕胎权斗争中的一次重大变化,也将吸引那些寻求对堕胎途径加以限制的其他司法管辖区进行效仿。
“These laws are unconstitutional, as we have understood Supreme Court rulings until now, and courts have quickly issued preliminary injunctions blocking enforcement,” said Elizabeth Nash, state policy analyst for the Guttmacher Institute, a research organization that supports abortion rights.
支持堕胎权利的研究机构古特马赫研究所(Guttmacher Institute)的州政策分析师伊丽莎白·纳什(Elizabeth Nash)说:“根据我们此前对最高法院判决的理解,这些法律是违宪的,而且法院很快发布了阻止执法的初步禁令。”
“This is the first one that has gone into effect,” she added. “This is huge in that respect.”
“这是第一个生效的,”她还说。“在这方面其影响是巨大的。”
Here are answers to a few common questions about the new legislation.
以下是对新立法的一些常见问题的解答。
Is the law a complete ban on abortions?
这项法律是否完全禁止堕胎?
The law bars abortions once cardiac activity can be detected in the embryo. This typically occurs around the sixth week of pregnancy.
根据该法律,一旦胚胎中能够检测到心脏活动,堕胎会被禁止。这通常发生在怀孕的第六周左右。
That is very early in a pregnancy, and many women do not know they are pregnant at that point. By the time a pregnant woman misses her period, she is four weeks pregnant, as doctors usually define it.
那是孕期非常初期的时候,许多女性在那个时候并不知道自己怀孕了。当一名怀孕女性发现月经没来时,根据医生通常使用的定义,她已经怀孕四周了。
Under the Texas law, then, a woman would have about two weeks to recognize her condition, confirm the pregnancy with a test, make a decision about how to manage the pregnancy and obtain an abortion.
根据这项得克萨斯州的法律,女性将有大约两周的时间来识别自己的情况、通过测试确认怀孕,决定如何处理怀孕并进行堕胎。
Many women may not track their periods carefully, may have irregular cycles, or may not know the exact date of the start of their last period, experts noted.
专家指出,许多女性可能没有仔细记录她们的月经周期,可能周期不规律,或者可能不记得上一次月经开始的确切日期。
“It is extremely possible and very common for people to get to the six-week mark and not know they are pregnant,” said Dr. Jennifer Villavicencio, lead for equity transformation at the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
美国妇产科医师学会(American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists)公平改革负责人詹妮弗·维拉维森西奥(Jennifer Villavicencio)博士说:“人们极有可能在怀孕六周后都不知道自己怀孕了,而且这种情况非常普遍。”
The cardiac activity detected on ultrasound is not a true heartbeat, Dr. Villavicencio added. It results from electrical activity, but the valves of the heart have not yet formed. And the sound does not indicate the pregnancy is viable, she said.
维拉维森西奥还说,超声波检测到的心脏活动并不是真正的心跳。它是由电流活动引起的,但心脏瓣膜尚未形成。她说,有声音并不表明胚胎将会活下来。
“Forcing them to find out about a pregnancy and make a decision about how to manage it in a short period of time is antithetical to ethical care,” Dr. Villavicencio said.
维拉维森西奥说:“强迫她们弄清楚怀孕情况,并在短时间内做出如何处理的决定,这违背了伦理关怀。”
Does the law make exceptions for pregnancies resulting from rape or incest, or to protect the life of the mother?
这项法律是否对因强奸或乱伦导致的怀孕或为了保护母亲的生命作出例外规定?
The law does not make exceptions for rape or incest. It does permit abortions for health reasons, but the exceptions are narrowly drawn, allowing a termination only if the pregnancy could endanger the mother’s life or lead to “substantial and irreversible impairment of a major bodily function,” Ms. Nash noted.
该法律没有为强奸或乱伦作出例外规定。纳什指出,它确实允许出于健康原因进行堕胎,但这种例外情况很有限,只有在怀孕可能危及母亲的生命或导致“主要身体机能严重且不可逆转的损害”时才允许终止妊娠。
“These are very narrow exceptions,” she said, and the language does not cover every instance in which a woman’s health might be at risk. Nonetheless, she added, “Health providers will be very conservative about interpreting the law, because they don’t want to cross a line.”
“这些都是非常极端的例外,”她说,并且措辞中并未涵盖女性健康可能面临风险的所有情况。尽管如此,她还说,“医疗服务提供者在解读法律时会非常保守,因为他们不想越界。”
Doesn’t Roe v. Wade guarantee a woman’s right to abortion? Can the Texas law be challenged on constitutional grounds?
“罗诉韦德案”(Roe v. Wade)不是保证了女性的堕胎权吗?能否以宪法为由挑战得克萨斯州的法律?
The Texas law bars state officials from actually enforcing it, a design intended to make it difficult to challenge in the courts.
得克萨斯州的法律禁止州政府官员实际执行该法律,这一设置旨在使其难以在法庭上被挑战。
Usually a lawsuit aiming to block such a law as unconstitutional names state officials as defendants. Instead, the Texas law deputizes private citizens to sue anyone who performs an abortion or “aids and abets” a procedure. Plaintiffs who have no connection to the patient or the clinic may sue and recover legal fees, as well as $10,000 if they win.
以违宪为由阻止这样一项法律的诉讼通常会将州政府官员列为被告。然而,得克萨斯州法律授权普通公民起诉任何执行堕胎或“协助和唆使”该手术的人。与患者或诊所没有任何关系的原告可以起诉并追回律师费,如果胜诉,还可以追回1万美元。
As a result, the question for the Supreme Court is not whether the law is constitutional, but whether it can be challenged in court.
因此,最高法院需要回答的问题不是法律是否合宪,而是该法是否可以在法庭上被挑战。
Does Texas now have the most restrictive abortion law in the nation?
得克萨斯州现在是否拥有全国最严格的堕胎法?
Other states — including Georgia, Mississippi, Kentucky and Ohio — have also passed “heartbeat” laws that ban abortion once cardiac activity can be detected on an ultrasound scan.
其他州——包括乔治亚州、密西西比州、肯塔基州和俄亥俄州——也通过了“心跳”法,一旦可以通过超声波扫描检测到心脏活动,堕胎即被禁止。
Those laws would also ban abortions at about six weeks of pregnancy, 18 weeks earlier than the legal standard set by Roe v. Wade, which allows abortion up until about 24 weeks, roughly the point when a fetus can survive outside the womb. But those state laws have been held up by legal challenges and have not been implemented.
这些法律也将禁止堕胎的时间定在在怀孕六周左右,比罗诉韦德案设定的法律标准提前了18周,该标准允许堕胎迟至24周左右,大致是胎儿可以在子宫外存活的胎龄。但这些州法律受到法律挑战的阻碍,并没有得到实施。
Abortion providers in Texas estimate that 85 percent of patients seeking abortion are at least six weeks pregnant and would be denied care under the new state law.
得克萨斯州的堕胎手术提供者估计,85%寻求堕胎的患者至少已怀孕六周,根据新的州法律,他们将被拒绝接受治疗。
Who will be most affected by the Texas law?
受得克萨斯州这项法律影响最大的将是谁?
There are seven million women of childbearing age in Texas, and the law will make it more difficult for all of them to obtain abortions in the state, as legislators intended.
得克萨斯州有700万育龄女性,正如立法者所希望的那样,该法律将使所有这些女性更难在该州进行堕胎。
But the measure will create nearly insurmountable obstacles for certain vulnerable populations, abortion providers said. Among them: teenagers, who often don’t realize they are pregnant until later in a pregnancy; low-income people, who need to find about $550 to cover the cost of the procedure; people of color; and undocumented immigrants.
但堕胎服务提供者表示,这项措施将给某些弱势群体带来几乎无法逾越的障碍,其中包括青少年(她们往往直到更晚的时候才意识到自己怀孕了)、低收入人群(她们需要凑集大约550美元来支付手术费用)、有色人种和无证移民。
About 70 percent of abortions in Texas in 2019 were provided to women of color, according to the Guttmacher Institute.
根据古特马赫研究所的数据,2019年得克萨斯州约有70%的堕胎手术是为有色人种女性提供的。
Texas requires minors to obtain permission from a parent or guardian to gain access to abortion care. Some minors must go to court to do so, adding to the delays, said Rosann Mariappuram, executive director of Jane’s Due Process in Austin, Texas, which helps teenagers get abortions.
得克萨斯州要求未成年人获得父母或监护人的许可才能获得堕胎服务。得克萨斯州奥斯汀的“珍的正当程序”(Jane’s Due Process)组织帮助青少年堕胎,其执行董事罗珊·马里亚普兰(Rosann Mariappuram)说,一些未成年人要做到这些必须上法庭,造成更多拖延。
Kamyon Conner, the executive director of the Texas Equal Access Fund, which helps low-income women pay for abortions, said she was particularly concerned about the new law’s potential impact on Black women in Texas, who already face high maternal mortality rates.
帮助低收入女性支付堕胎费用的得克萨斯平等机会基金(Texas Equal Access Fund)的执行董事卡米昂·康纳(Kamyon Conner)说,她特别担心新法律对得克萨斯州黑人女性的潜在影响,她们已经面临着很高的孕产妇死亡率。
Undocumented women cannot travel easily around the state to get access to care, she added, and women with chronic illnesses can find a pregnancy life-threatening.
她还说,对女性无证移民来说,在州内长途出行以获得堕胎服务并不容易,而患有慢性病的女性怀孕可能会危及生命。

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